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Craig N. As part of globalization's continuing march, the growth of transnational corporations TNCs has been at least as dramatic as that of civil society. Here she is careful to trace the substantial changes over time—part technological, part political—that for a time rendered the UN of little news value. That, of course, changed with the end of the Cold War and the escalating number of crises on the world organization's daily agenda.

She suggests that the UN itself try to set agendas rather than reacting to events as it has in the past.

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The failure of the League of Nations did not preclude UN work in this area—indeed, after Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it seemed imperative. While he does not downplay the interests of major powers as circumscribing the UN's possible contributions, nonetheless Krause sees intergovernmental institutions as possessing a limited but valuable autonomy to shape these interests as well as to frame the normative structures within which these interests are pursued.

Unfortunately, these conditions rarely characterize UN operations starting in the dramatically turbulent years of the s. No other names are more intimately associated with this topic, on which the two senior authors have collaborated since sanctions became a favored tool of statecraft in the s.

This is certainly one area where substantial task expansion has occurred. During the next fifteen years, however, the Council adopted dozens of sanctions resolutions levied against sixteen distinct targets, including states and nonstate actors. Bringing to the essay his own experience as an author, teacher, and journal editor on these matters, he contests the notion that there has been a significant change in the underlying determinants of UN enforcement.

He begins by parsing the elastic definitions that surround this topic. He does not believe p. Pugh concisely surveys the key cases after the UN's renaissance in the s and documents the extent to which subcontracting to major powers and regional organizations was the only feasible way to project military force to back up international decisions.

The predominant military power of the United States is a main theme.

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Pugh hesitates to characterize as an unqualified success any use of the blunt instrument of military enforcement—with or without a UN blessing. And in spite of many criticisms, the numbers of soldiers in UN operations outnumber the foreign military deployments of any country other than the United States. And during this same time, peacekeepers from regional organizations often seen as the wave of the future fell by half.

He thus begins his essay with an examination of humanitarian interventions by colonial powers in the nineteenth century.

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The proliferation of civil wars has presented a substantial challenge to the UN system in trying to rebuild state capacity in countries ripped apart by the new threats and actors described earlier. He sees a process of learning by which market democracy is no longer, if it ever was, seen as a miracle cure. Among the more significant other lessons from UN efforts are the importance of building effective domestic institutions as well as the requirement for more effective coordination among the diverse array of p. The establishment of the Peacebuilding Commission in December as a result of the World Summit may be a step in the right direction.

UN deliberations have assumed increased importance since that moment when a different type of possibility—namely the possibility of WMDs in the hands of a rogue state—has upped the international ante. Boulden discusses the two main sticking points in UN discussions, which ironically have led to several important treaties but to no definition. Among the many new threats on the UN's current agenda, those described in this chapter stand out as unsettling future challenges.

His point of departure is the revolutionary implications of taking human rights seriously, which leads him to discuss two possible analytical lenses through which to examine the UN's story. On the one hand, there are the all too evident failures, with the massive violations of the rights of large groups of humankind frequently ignored. On the other hand, Ramcharan highlights the struggle to move forward with the standard that societies should be governed by a basic respect for human rights and without discrimination on grounds of race, sex, language, or religion.

The transformation of the Commission on Human Rights into the Human Rights Council as a result of the World Summit was the latest manifestation of clashing views between the West and many developing countries; but most observers viewed the p. This chapter focuses on contemporary international efforts to consolidate and codify significant portions of existing customary international law through decisions rendered by the ad hoc UN tribunals for a number of countries and the passage of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

The tensions over jurisdiction and turf present in other chapters come to the surface most clearly in Crisp's examination of the bevy of UN institutions, and their NGO partners, that flock to the scene of contemporary humanitarian emergencies. The UN's visible efforts for women began to be noticed with the preparation for the World Conference of the International Women's Year in Mexico City in , but they actually started with earlier endeavors to quantify women's contributions to economic development. After discussing the differences between women and gender, Bunch critically examines the norms and their institutional manifestations as well as selected UN system efforts to promote women's rights in development, health, human rights, and peace and security.

Bunch balances her evaluation of how much things have changed for women and girls over the last six decades with a criticism of the world organization itself whose moral authority is weakened by failing to live up to its own high standards in the recruitment and promotion of women. UNICEF is the focus for Beigbeder's examination, but other UN organizations also enter into the diplomatic promotion of children's rights and into associated operational issues.

The emphasis on children is hardly new—the League of Nations had a program, and many NGOs have been working on the issue for decades. The Convention on the Rights of the Child broke all records in terms of its rapid entry into force. Her own writing and teaching about critical race theory provide an excellent vantage point for her clear delineation of the nature of the two nascent regimes of international human rights law that respond to both personal and collective vulnerabilities.

UN efforts here have aimed to ensure that minorities are protected and can participate in the dominant societies in which they live, while the cultures of indigenous peoples require protection from the societies around them which, in all too many cases, have almost obliterated them. For the latter, globalization has both threatened their existence and made it possible for others to be aware of their plight.

Global community: the role of international organizations in the making of the contemporary world

Hampson and Christopher K. Penny provide not only a fitting introduction to this crucial and increasingly salient policy topic but also a transition to the next part of the Handbook. Indeed, human security is firmly entrenched in today's language of world politics and reflects the UN's role in advancing and sometimes enforcing new international norms that place the individual—and not member states—at the core of modern understandings of international security. However individual human security is defined, it has certainly been enhanced by the work of the United Nations.

But Hampson and Penny do not shy away from pointing to some of the analytical and policy costs arising from casting the net widely, which was the dominant characteristic of the World Summit and has become an increasingly popular framing for many agencies and governments.

The purpose of the seventh part of the Handbook is to introduce briefly some of the more essential and pertinent aspects of the UN's efforts to foster economic and social development. While development was originally framed essentially as a way to ensure peace, the rapid pace of decolonization resulted in a change in priorities for the world organization—development was an essential objective in and of itself for newly independent countries.

The contributions of the UN to development thinking and practice are seriously understudied. Here, however, we have to content ourselves with an overview of several essential current topics that have clear transnational dimensions and also are part of the challenge of development.

Readers should, of course, be mindful that many other chapters in the Handbook deal with important aspects of economic and social advancement. Moreover, the authors highlight the autonomy of the World Bank and the IMF—whose resources and annual disbursements dwarf those of the entire UN system—that make the Bretton Woods institutions distinct from the UN system even if the organizational chart includes them as linked components. In thinking through the challenges of the Charter's connection between economic and social development and the fundamental purpose of saving future generations from the scourge of war, they trace the reasons why development became the work of the world organization with the influx of almost countries since The control of infectious diseases has an inherently international dimension because national boundaries do not halt pathogens; and the international movement of persons, animals, and goods makes every country vulnerable.

The major achievement to date which suggests the effectiveness of a multilateral attack on infectious diseases was p. While in the new world organization was conceived to maintain or restore international peace and security, Schrijver points out that throughout its existence the UN has had a profound impact on natural resource management, both conceptually and operationally. In many ways the UN's two blockbuster conferences on the topic of the human environment—in Stockholm in and in Rio de Janeiro in —are markers of the efforts by state and especially nonstate actors to reframe the human relationship with the natural environment and development.

The disconnect between the size of environmental challenges and the relatively feeble international machinery for addressing them—for example, the UN Environment Programme and the World Bank—is stark. On the other hand, reinterpretations of older conventions are crucial in today's world where rapid communications, global financial systems, and ease of transportation increasingly place national authorities at a disadvantage in fighting such illicit activity.

Even the prosecution of criminal cases assumes extreme complexity when dealing with different criminal laws and different legal systems. As Madsen points out, eradicating terrorism and money laundering is like putting a stop to the trafficking of illicit drugs and humans in that these should be intrinsic and not additional UN activities. Only a few states that signed the Charter in had democratically elected governments; but that number increased gradually to about forty in the s and then dramatically after the end of the Cold War to around countries today.

The gap between rhetoric and reality constitutes a substantial democratic deficit—in member states and in the Secretariat. Based on a long and distinguished career as a development practitioner and theorist, Jolly puts before readers the concern with accelerated economic and social development that has been a hallmark of the UN's efforts on behalf of developing countries from the outset.

Arguing that the world organization and its component parts have followed a multidisciplinary approach to development—in contrast with the primarily economic framework championed by the World Bank and the IMF—Jolly concentrates on the conceptual approach that has been continually refined with the annual publication, beginning in , of UNDP's Human Development Report. The final part of the Handbook returns explicitly to our main theme but looks more toward the future than the present or past.

The ongoing struggle to update the world organization in light of the new threats and new actors that figure prominently in these pages was most obvious in the September World Summit in New York. Here, three authors put squarely before readers the constraints inhibiting radical structural alteration in the United Nations—those working against substantial reform, more flexibility in financing, and wider participation—but with a sensitivity to what may be possible in the next decade. All point to considerable evidence of adaptation and change over the last sixty years while indicating that no such impression is widely shared by even the intelligent reading public.

No one is better qualified than Edward C. As in all his writing, however, Luck is careful to situate these ambitious reform possibilities in a proper historical context. In fact, the world organization has p. Reform and change have been a constant refrain. At the same time, Luck examines the intricacies and the politics of the peculiar moment that was the sixtieth anniversary.

The world organization is no stranger to controversy and criticism, but attempts to solve political problems by procedural changes are bound to fall short. Resources are one concrete way to measure political will and commitment. Moreover, while the topic of UN financing would appear to some as mere housekeeping and the details of administration as boring and of little interest, in fact some of the most contentious political struggles that have wracked and at times imperiled the world organization have centered on its financing.

Because financial resources are a fundamental metric of power, Laurenti outlines why it is hardly surprising that the major donors want their preferences to be heard. That the UN is not a world government is perhaps most obvious here because it levies no taxes and has no independent sources of finance, but must rely on the assessed and voluntary contributions of its member governments. The clash between the realities of power, especially of the United States as the main contributor, and Charter values are reflected in the recurrent battles over the state of the UN's financial health.

Alger provides an appropriate book end with his examination of the changing face of multilateralism. With the proliferation of actors and technologies, Alger observes the increasing involvement by nonstate actors in addition to the traditional foreign policy bureaucracies of member state governments. In the past, many observers saw the logical conclusion of UN efforts as a world government, modeled on those of existing states.

Global community: the role of international organizations in the making of the contemporary world

But increasingly, the messier notion of global governance is the rubric under which many members of civil society attempt to improve international order. Alger calls upon readers to get involved in civil society organizations, business groups, and local groups and thereby change from unconscious to conscious participants in international society. We wish readers bon voyage as they embark on their journey through the history of continuity and change in the United Nations since Michael G. Inis L.

Claude, Jr. This is the definition used to determine whether a particular war was tabulated. Some have argued that there has been an upswing in the number, intensity, and duration of civil wars, particularly since However, data indicate that the quantity of overall conflicts decreased while negotiated settlements increased over the s. Andrew Mack et al. Hoffman and Thomas G. Ernst B. See, for example, Frances M. Deng et al. Kofi A.

Gerald B.