Of million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States , Argentina , South Africa , the post-Soviet states, France , each accounting for at least 1 million.
Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between and more than million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German. The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc , referring to the Germanic "language of the people".
It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German , attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers.
While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century.
Helmuth Hübener on the Day of His Execution
The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in ending the Thirty Years War ; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe ; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia.
By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania.
Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized , although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity.
The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity. The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria ; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe , the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths , large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of.
Allied-occupied Germany Upon defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II , the victorious Allies asserted joint authority and sovereignty over'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich west of the Oder—Neisse line , having declared the destruction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler. The four powers divided'Germany as a whole' into four occupation zones for administrative purposes, under the United States , United Kingdom and the Soviet Union respectively; this division was ratified at the Potsdam Conference.
At Potsdam , the United States, United Kingdom and the Soviet Union approved the detachment from'Germany as a whole' of the German eastern territories east of the Oder—Neisse line; this treaty was expected to confirm the "shifting westward" of Poland's borders, as the United Kingdom and the United States committed themselves to support in any future peace treaty the permanent incorporation of former eastern German territories into Poland and the Soviet Union.
From March to July , these former eastern territories of Germany had been administered under Soviet military occupation authorities, but following the Potsdam Conference they were handed over to Soviet and Polish civilian administrations and ceased to constitute part of Allied-occupied Germany.
In the closing weeks of fighting in Europe , United States forces had pushed beyond the agreed boundaries for the future zones of occupation, in some places by as much as km; the so-called line of contact between Soviet and American forces at the end of hostilities lying eastward of the July established inner German border, was temporary. After two months in which they had held areas, assigned to the Soviet zone, U. Some have concluded that this was a crucial move that persuaded the Soviet Union to allow American and French forces into their designated sectors in Berlin , which occurred at the same time, although the need for intelligence gathering may have been a factor.
All territories annexed by Germany before the war from Austria and Czechoslovakia were returned to these countries. At the end of October , the American Zone had a population of: Bavaria 8. Following the complete closure of all Nazi German media, the launch and operation of new newspaper titles began by licensing selected Germans as publishers. The Canadian Army was tied down in surrounding the Netherlands until the Germans there surrendered on 5 May —just two days before the final surrender of the Wehrmacht in Western Europe to U.
General Dwight D. After the liberation of the Netherlands and the conquest of Northern Germany by the British Army , the bulk of the Canadian Army returned home, leaving Northern Germany to be occupied by the British Army. In July , the British Army withdrew from Mecklenburg's capital Schwerin which they had taken over from the Americans a few weeks before, as it had been agreed to be occupied by the Soviet Army. Himmler was one of the most powerful men in Nazi Germany and among those most directly responsible for the Holocaust ; as a member of a reserve battalion during World War I , Himmler did not see active service.
He studied agronomy in university, joined the Nazi Party in and the SS in Over the next 16 years, he developed the SS from a mere man battalion into a million-strong paramilitary group, following Hitler's orders, set up and controlled the Nazi concentration camps, he was known for good organisational skills and for selecting competent subordinates, such as Reinhard Heydrich in From onwards, he was both Chief of German Police and Minister of the Interior, overseeing all internal and external police and security forces, including the Gestapo.
On Hitler's behalf, Himmler built extermination camps.
As facilitator and overseer of the concentration camps, Himmler directed the killing of some six million Jews, between , and , Romani people, other victims. Most of them were Soviet citizens.
Commitment of the youth, Deutsche Oper Berlin Stock Photo: - Alamy
Realising the war was lost, Himmler attempted to open peace talks with the western Allies without Hitler's knowledge, shortly before the end of the war. Hearing of this, Hitler ordered his arrest. Himmler attempted to go into hiding, but was detained and arrested by British forces once his identity became known.
While in British custody, he committed suicide on 23 May Heinrich Luitpold Himmler was born in Munich on 7 October into a conservative middle-class Roman Catholic family.
Heinrich had Gebhard Ludwig and Ernst Hermann. Himmler's first name, was that of his godfather, Prince Heinrich of Bavaria , a member of the royal family of Bavaria , tutored by Gebhard Himmler, he attended a grammar school in Landshut. While he did well in his schoolwork, he struggled in athletics, he had poor health, suffering from other ailments. In his youth he exercised to become stronger. Other boys at the school remembered him as studious and awkward in social situations.
Himmler's diary, which he kept intermittently from the age of 10, shows that he took a keen interest in current events, "the serious discussion of religion and sex".
In , he began training with the Landshut Cadet Corps , his father used his connections with the royal family to get Himmler accepted as an officer candidate, he enlisted with the reserve battalion of the 11th Bavarian Regiment in December His brother, served on the western front and saw combat, receiving the Iron Cross and being promoted to lieutenant. In November , while Himmler was still in training, the war ended with Germany's defeat, denying him the opportunity to become an officer or see combat.
After his discharge on 18 December, he returned to Landshut. After the war, Himmler completed his grammar-school education. From —22, he studied agronomy at the Munich Technische Hochschule following a brief apprenticeship on a farm and a subsequent illness. Although many regulations that discriminated against non-Christians—including Jews and other minority groups—had been eliminated during the unification of Germany in , antisemitism continued to exist and thrive in Germany and other parts of Europe.
Himmler was antisemitic by the time not exceptionally so, he remained a devoted Catholic while a student, spent most of his leisure time with members of his fencing fraternity, the "League of Apollo", the president of, Jewish. Himmler maintained a polite demeanor with him and with other Jewish members of the fraternity, in spite of his growing antisemitism. During his second year at university, Himmler redoubled his attempts to pursue a military career.
In , Himmler became more interested in the "Jewish question", with his diary entries containing an increasing number of antisemitic remarks and recording a. It was founded in when the south German states, except for Austria , joined the North German Confederation. On 1 January , the new constitution came into force that changed the name of the federal state and introduced the title of emperor for Wilhelm I , King of Prussia from the House of Hohenzollern.
Berlin remained its capital, Otto von Bismarck remained Chancellor, the head of government; as these events occurred, the Prussian-led North German Confederation and its southern German allies were still engaged in the Franco-Prussian War. The German Empire consisted of 26 states, most of them ruled by royal families, they included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, one imperial territory.
Although Prussia was one of several kingdoms in the realm, it contained about two thirds of Germany's population and territory.
Otto Georg Thierack
Prussian dominance was established constitutionally. After , the states of Germany had become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In , Germany had a population of 41 million people. A rural collection of states in , the now united Germany became predominantly urban.
During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire was an industrial and scientific giant, gaining more Nobel Prizes in science than any other country. By , Germany was the largest economy in Europe , surpassing the United Kingdom , as well as the second-largest in the world, behind only the United States. Broad reforms and the Kulturkampf marked his period in the office.
Late in Bismarck's chancellorship and in spite of his personal opposition, Germany became involved in colonialism. Claiming much of the leftover territory, yet unclaimed in the Scramble for Africa , it managed to build the third-largest colonial empire after the British and the French ones. As a colonial state, it sometimes clashed with other European powers the British Empire. Germany became a great power, boasting a developing rail network, the world's strongest army, a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britain's Royal Navy.